Demonstrative Pronouns

Указа́тельные местоиме́ния

Introduction

Введе́ние

The demonstrative pronouns are э́тот (this), тот (that), and тако́й (such). They are used to identify and demonstrate the quality/quantity of objects and persons.

Declension

Склоне́ние

Demonstrative pronouns must agree with the noun they modify in gender, number, and case. The pronouns этот and тот share the same endings, except for the plural forms (тот has ‘те-‘). The pronoun такой is declined like a regular end-stressed adjective.

 

э́тот (this/these)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative э́тот э́то э́та э́ти
Accusative э́ту
Genitive э́того э́той э́тих
Dative э́тому э́тим
Instrumental э́тим э́тими
Prepositional э́том э́тих

 

тот (that/those)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative тот то та те
Accusative ту
Genitive того́ той тех
Dative тому́ тем
Instrumental тем те́ми
Prepositional том тех

 

тако́й (such)
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative тако́й тако́е така́я таки́е
Accusative таку́ю
Genitive тако́го тако́й таки́х
Dative тако́му таки́м
Instrumental таки́м таки́ми
Prepositional тако́м таки́х

 

э́тот, тот

The demonstrative pronouns э́тот (this, or that) and тот (that) are used to point out certain objects or people. They only modify nouns and must agree in gender, number, and case with the modified noun.

The pronoun э́тот is more general in meaning. It may be translated as “this” or “that” (plural: “these” or “those”) in English, depending on the context. It is used to refer to an object that is close to the speaker.

Э́тот компью́тер дорого́й. — This computer is expensive.
Э́та шля́па моя́. — This hat is mine.
Э́то окно́ бы́ло откры́то. — This window was open.
Э́ти ключи́ не мои́. — These keys aren’t mine.

The pronoun то́т is always translated as “that” because it refers to an object that is away from the speaker. It is considered more remote than э́тот and is frequently used to contrast with it (i.e. this here = э́тот, but that over there = то́т.

То́т компью́тер не дорого́й. — That computer isn’t expensive.
Та́ шля́па не моя́. — That hat isn’t mine.
То́ окно́ бы́ло закры́то. — That window was closed.
Те́ ключи́ не твои́. —Those keys aren’t yours.

Я куплю́ э́ти кни́ги, а не те́. — I’ll buy these books, but not those.
Его́ дом на э́той стороне́ у́лицы, а наш дом на то́й стороне́. — His house is on this side of the street, but ours is on that side.
Он живёт вон там, в то́м большо́м до́ме. — He lives over there, in that big house.

Other Uses of то́т

There are some important uses of тот listed below.

  • не то́т — the wrong (one)
    Я взял не то́т ключ. — I took the wrong key.
     
  • то́т же (са́мый) — the (very) same
    Э́то та́ же маши́на, кото́рая была́ у него́ 10 лет наза́д. — That’s the same car that he had ten years ago.
     
  • и то́т и друго́й — both info When two things differ in gender, the neuter form и то́ и друго́е is used.
    Кака́я шля́па тебе́ нра́вится, чёрная или бе́лая? Мне нра́вится и та́, и друга́я. — Which hat do you like, black or white? I like both.
    Како́й мне купи́ть, плащ и́ли ку́ртку? Купи́ и то́, и друго́е. — Which should I buy, a raincoat or a jacket? Buy both of them.
     

 

э́то

There is an extra indeclinable pronoun: э́то (the neuter form of ‘этот’). It is not modified at all to agree with nouns (i.e. it always keeps the form э́то). It is used to answer a question and give the identity of an object or person. It can be translated as “this/that is” or “these/those are.”

Что э́то? — What’s that?
Э́то слова́рь. — That’s a dictionary.

Кто э́то? — Who’s that?
Э́то моя́ жена́. — That’s my wife.

Verbs take the agreement of the predicate nominative noun in sentences with э́то (i.e. the noun that это refers to). Nothing ever agrees with э́то!

Кто звони́л у́тром? — Who called this morning?
Э́то была́ моя́ тётя. — It was my aunt.

 

тако́й

The demonstrative pronoun тако́й (such) declines like a regular adjective with end stress (like ‘большо́й’ big). It is used to refer to a quality or property of the noun that it modifies.

Мне нужна́ така́я маши́на. — I need a car like that.
Тако́го му́жа тру́дно найти́. — A husband like that is hard to find.

If an adjective follows тако́й, it intensifies its meaning (such a, so).

Он тако́й стра́нный челове́к. — He’s such a strange person.
Э́ти кни́ги таки́е дороги́е. — These books are so expensive.

It can be used to modify the noun antecedent of the relative pronoun како́й.

Он купи́л таку́ю (же) шля́пу, каку́ю и ты купи́л. — He bought the (same) kind of hat that you bought.

info   A noun antecedent is simply a noun that is used with a relative pronoun. The relative pronoun (i.e. како́й) refers back to the antecedent and must grammatically agree with it (i.e. agree in number and gender).