Determinative Pronouns

Определи́тельные местоиме́ния

Introduction    Введе́ние

Determinative pronouns are used to indicate a reference to other nouns in a similar group without being too specific. They are: весь (all, the whole), сам (oneself), са́мый (the very), вся́кий (every, all kinds of), друго́й (another), ино́й (other), ка́ждый (each), любо́й (any), вся́ческий (of every kind).

вся́кий день — every day
ка́ждый день — each day; daily
друго́й день — another day
любо́й день — any day; a day
са́мый день — the very/same day

The determinative pronouns вся́кий (all kinds of), ка́ждый (each, every), and любо́й (any) are used to single an object out of a number of similar ones. They are interchangeable in the same sentences.

Вся́кую кни́гу мо́жно купи́ть в то́м магази́не. — All kinds of books can be bought at that store.
Ка́ждую кни́гу мо́жно купи́ть в то́м магази́не. — Every book can be bought at that store.
Любу́ю кни́гу мо́жно купи́ть в то́м магази́не. — Any book can be bought at that store.

Declension    Склоне́ние

Determinative pronouns are declined like adjectives according to the gender, number, and case of the noun they modify. There are two irregular declensions: весь (all, whole) and сам (oneself).

весь
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative весь всё вся́ все́
Accusative всю́
Genitive всего́ все́й все́х
Dative всему́ все́м
Instrumental все́м все́й (все́ю) все́ми
Prepositional всём все́й все́х
сам
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative сам само́ сама́ са́ми
Accusative саму́
Genitive самого́ само́й сами́х
Dative самому́ сами́м
Instrumental сами́м само́й (само́ю) сами́ми
Prepositional само́м само́й сами́х

весь (all)

весь usually means “the whole” in the singular form (весь день “the whole day”), and “all” in the plural form (все́ студе́нты “all of the students”). It has a special declension different from other determinative pronouns.

Я не прочита́л всю́ кни́гу. — I haven’t read the whole book.
Мы е́здили по все́й стране́. — We have traveled throughout the whole country.

It is also the only determinative pronoun that can be used without a noun. The neuter singular and plural forms can stand alone and have their own meanings: всё (everybody) and все (everyone).

Всё случи́лось о́чень бы́стро. — Everything happened very fast.
Скажи́ мне всё, что ты зна́ешь. — Tell me everything you know.
Все бы́ли там. — Everyone was there.
Он знако́м со все́ми. — He is acquainted with everyone.

Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative весь всё вся́ все́
Accusative всю́
Genitive всего́ все́й все́х
Dative всему́ все́м
Instrumental все́м все́й (все́ю) все́ми
Prepositional всём все́й все́х

In colloquial Russian, всё can mean “right” or “that’s it!”

Всё, хва́тит! — Right, that’s enough!

It can also be used with the adverbs ещё and равно́.

всё ещё — still, even now
всё равно́ — still, all the same, nonetheless

The genitive singular form всего́ may be used by itself or with лишь (merely) to mean “only” or “no more than” in expressions that deal with quantity.

Ему́ на то́т моме́нт бы́ло всего́ (лишь) пятна́дцать ле́т. — At that time he was only fifteen years old.

весь (all, the whole) must be distinguished with the adjective це́лый which means “a whole” of something (but not “THE whole”).

Не е́шьте весь арбу́з. — Don’t eat the whole watermelon
Мо́жно съесть це́лый арбу́з? — Is it possible to eat a whole watermelon?

сам (oneself)

The determinative pronoun сам is used to add emphasis to a particular noun or pronoun. It corresponds with the use of the “intensive” English pronoun -self (i.e. I have myself to blame., We solved the problem ourselves.) When it is used with any animate subject, it emphasizes that the action was performed without the help of others.

Я сам/сама́ винова́т(а). — I have myself to blame. (male/female)
Приложе́ние де́лает всё само́. — The application does everything itself.
Мы са́ми реши́ли зада́чу. — We solved the problem ourselves.

сам must agree in gender, number, and case with the noun it modifies. It takes endings like the demonstrative pronoun э́тот, but shifts stress to the ending for most forms. It should never be confused with са́мый, which has different declension endings and a different meaning (the same, the very).

Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative сам само́ сама́ са́ми
Accusative саму́
Genitive самого́ само́й сами́х
Dative самому́ сами́м
Instrumental сами́м само́й (само́ю) сами́ми
Prepositional само́м само́й сами́х

The pronoun сам may be used to emphasize that an action was completed without human interference if the subject is an inanimate object.

Дверь откры́лась сама́. (Никто́ не откры́л её.) — The door opened by itself. (No one opened it.)
Телеви́зор сам отключи́лся. (Я не вы́ключил его́.) — The television shut off by itself. (I didn’t turn it off.)

It may also be used to add emphasis to the reflexive pronoun себя́.

Я виню́ то́лько самого́ себя́. — I blame only myself.

са́мый (the very)

The pronoun са́мый (the very) is used to express a precise point in time or space. It is declined like a regular adjective (e.g. но́вый) and stress stays on its stem.

It should never be confused with сам (-self), even though they share a basic meaning: emphasis. са́мый keeps its stress on the first syllable, compared to сам which shifts stress to the ending in most declensions. Compare the difference of both in the following sentences.

Я живу́ в са́мом це́нтре го́рода. — I live in the very center of the city.
Я живу́ в само́м це́нтре го́рода. — I live in the city center itself.

Note that the first sentence (which uses са́мый) adds emphasis to a very precise point in space (the center of the city). In contrast, the second sentence (which uses сам) adds emphasis to the noun itself (the city center and not another part of the city).

са́мый may be used after the demonstrative pronoun то́т (же) for the meaning “the (very) same.”

Он ду́мал и́менно то́ же са́мое. — He thinks exactly the same.
Э́то то́т са́мый челове́к, кото́рый был здесь ра́ньше. — This is the same person who was here earlier.

са́мый is used in a few set expressions: в са́мый раз “just right”, в са́мом де́ле “really, indeed”, на са́мом де́ле “in fact, actually”, and э́то са́мое “what’s-its-name (used when you can’t remember the name of something).”

Те́ босоно́жки не подойду́т, а во́т э́ти ту́фли в са́мый раз! — Those sandals won’t work, but these shoes are just right!
Он в са́мом де́ле знал э́ту же́нщину. — He really knew that woman.
Ско́лько на са́мом де́ле сто́ит килогра́мм я́блок на база́ре? — How much actually is a kilo of apples in the market?

info   са́мый is also used to form the superlative of adjectives.

Other Determinative Pronouns

The other determinative pronouns are listed below with examples of usage.

  • вся́кий means “every kind of”, “all kinds of”, “every manner of” or “all sorts of”, but is nowadays most often found in certain set phrases: вся́кий раз “every time”, вся́кий (челове́к) “everybody”. It is declined like the regular adjective ‘ру́сский’. The phrase ‘на вся́кий слу́чай‘ means “just in case.”
    В магази́не бы́ло полно́ вся́ких веще́й. — The shop was full of all sorts of things.
    Возьми́ зо́нтик на вся́кий слу́чай. — Take an umbrella, just in case.
     
  • вся́ческий means “all kinds of” or “of every kind”. It is declined like the regular adjective ‘ру́сский’.
    Он избега́ет её вся́ческими путя́ми — He avoids her in every possible way.
     
  • друго́й means “another” or a “different” one. It is declined like the regular adjective ‘большо́й’.
    Он ви́дел её на друго́й стороне́ у́лицы. — He saw her on the other side of the street.
    Она́ попроси́ла стюарде́ссу пересади́ть себя́ на друго́е ме́сто. — She asked the stewardess to move her to a different seat.
     
  • ино́й means “another, other”, “different” or “some”. It is a synonym of друго́й and considered a more bookish and slightly archaic style. It is declined like the regular adjective ‘большо́й’.
    ино́й раз — sometimes
     
  • ка́ждый means “each”. It is declined like the regular adjective ‘но́вый’.
    Она́ хо́дит в кино́ ка́ждую пя́тницу. — She goes to the movies every Friday.
    Мы помога́ем ма́ме ка́ждый день. — We help mom every day.
     
  • Любо́й means “any” especially in the sense of “every“. It is declined like the regular adjective ‘большо́й’.
    Позвони́те мне в любо́е вре́мя. — Call me at any time.
    Тебе́ каку́ю маши́ну, бе́лую и́ли чёрную? Любу́ю. — Which car do you want, white or black? Any of them.
    Вы найдёте их това́ры в любо́м суперма́ркете. — You can find their goods in any supermarket.